Six pairs of 'thirteen day' eclipses could be seen unambiguously. Definition of Day and issue of timing determination It is easy for us, in present time, to precisely analyze the eclipse times based on a 24 hour per day time clock. However many thousand years ago, such a time evaluation would clearly be irrelevant.
Hence the count of the day and time had to be based on clear, natural and unambiguous events such as sunset to sunset or sunrise to sun rise. Hence in all the analyses, presented below, the time of relevant sun rise or sun set is indicated such that the eclipse beginning and end can be evaluated with reference to the sun rise or sun set. In modern day definition, the period from sunrise to next sunrise is never 24 hours except on equinox day.
On all other days, the time will be either less than 24 hours when day light time is shrinking and more than 24 hours when day light time is increasing. For people of ancient times, sunset-to-sunset or sunrise-to-sunrise would be the logical definition of a day. Using this definition, it is possible to determine whether an eclipse pair occurred in 'Thirteen days'. Kurukshethra eclipses and some planetary retrograde motions The table below shows six pairs of eclipses, which can be analyzed further to determine whether Mahabharata war and events could occur then.
There are others that have low obscurity for solar eclipse, or have dominant penumbral lunar eclipse content and hence do not constitute strong candidates for the Mahabharata war. Planets Sani Saturn and Brihaspati Jupiter , Shukra Venus in retrograde motion are illustrated for period around the eclipse pairs. Let us now look at how any observer can study these eclipses and conclude that the pair occurred in 'Thirteen days'. On Julian August 11 afternoon, a solar eclipse begins 20 minuets before sunset and it is still on going at sunset.
Fourteen days later On Julian August 25 in the evening at sunset a lunar eclipse is already occurring. It clearly suggests that eclipse started on the 13th day after the previous eclipse! Obviously the end of lunar and start of solar eclipses were less than 14 days period, or occurred in 13 days. This could be concluded without the benefit of modern clocks.
The dates of this eclipse pair are Julian and Julian month of August. In ancient Bharata , since the full moon occurred on Proshtapada , the month would be considered as Bhadrapada. Normally, this is the monsoon rainy season in North India. However, there are many occasions when monsoon fails.
The epic states that draught like conditions existed. Even during normal monsoon the sky is occasionally clear for the eclipses to have been witnessed. The two planets Jupiter, and Saturn are in motion vakri and these do occur during JBC as illustrated below. Motion of Angaraka or Mars is normal. Items in red show retrograde or Vakri motion. Balakrishna Abstract Mahabharata war is considered by many to be a historical event.
Fourteen days later at same time. Balakrishna, First of all thanks a lot for this effort and research, I would like to request you if you could make a YouTube video of this research that will help lots of other guys to understand this clearly. I thought the exact date could be calculated using the astronomical references from Mahabharata. And then I find this article. What a hybrid of Science and Sprituality. Dr Balakrishna, thank you for your efforts and time.
It has made for an interesting read. They allege that there were settlers around BC around the Egyptian pyramids. Why is a lot of information and access to certain areas of the Egyptian pyramids being forbidden?? I have a strong thought that somewhere between and BC and today, a lot of knowledge and tech has been lost.
I would love to see that day when all lost world's knowledge returns. In one episode of Cosmos, Niel says that the ice age stopped some k years ago. About 10k years ago, the earths climate stabilized. And the human civilisation starts on fertile river delta plains.
Dating Mahabharata - Two Eclipses in Thirteen Days by S. Balakrishna
Niel may be few thousand years off, but our civilizational history is certainly 10k years old for sure, at least. This article has been a great fodder for my curiosity.
During the Mahabharat war which occurred first - a solar eclipse or a lunar eclipse? If the blocking of sun when Jayadrath was killed took place because of a solar eclipse, and if the eclipses occurred within 13 days, a natural guess is that the lunar eclipse took place first followed by the solar eclipse.
In such a case the table Six eclipse pairs visible at Kurukshethra occurring in less than or near 14 days given by the author is reduced to naught unless there is a blunder in column 2 of the table. Certainly a clarification is desired on the above. One of the reasons, of course, is that we searched for them in the wrong region, partly driven by conjectures of Aryabhatta and Varahamihir for beginning of Kaliyuga. Read - When did the Mahabharata War Happen? The Mystery of Arundhati..
But Gupta is the same title so the Gupta Empire in India was actually the Egyptians coming to power , though it took them a while to muster themselves. It may be that it is a clever piece of wordplay on the title Raju na. As Jum is a syllable of Shiva If it was Rameses who is being referred to then that was him in his human earthly form, not his god form. Every Pharaoh was an incarnation of Amun Manasyu, also described as the Royal Eye of Gupta. Gupta turns out to be the same word as Copt The Manasyu who is spoken of in the Mahabharata actually turns out to have been the same person as Menes , the first Pharaoh of Egypt.
This was realised by L. Manasyu had been a crown prince of the Indus before returning to Sumeria and then founding the solar line of Pharaohs of Egypt. He lived at least years before the kurukshetra battle if it did occur in BC. Manasyu was described as the Emperor of the whole world There was indeed a double eclipse in the spring of BC which is the date of the great battle.
I recently realised a remarkable possibility. It has been noted that before about BC there was not so much going on in India but that after that date there was a sudden flourishing of archaeology, religious thought and literature. It has been proposed by L. Waddell that there was a great migration into India of Syrio Hittites and Egyptians at that time. I was recently reading a very old book about the Hittites by Archibald Sayce on a Kindle reader. The prayers of Pharaoh Rameses to Amun on the battlefield seemed to make it very probable indeed.
It was a famous epic in Egypt and Syria after the event. The difficulty of the astrology may stem from a mix up of important dates as the BC or thereabout date may possibly refer to the date of the founding of Egypt. Balakrishna, This is fascinating stuff! Was truly a pleasure reading this, what with scientific evidence backing it up!! Science and Religion are two things. In religion you have faith, conviction and nothing to do with arithmatic or astronomy, physics etc.
I will now go to my heavenly abode and have been a student of science. In science there is truth and truth only. Nothing on earth can be lifted without touching it unless forces at distance works. But our myth has many instances when a body disappeared and appeared again at another place. Time and motion has some relation not based on faith. What is the definition of a day? What are the types of days?
The Mahabharata has not mentioned any other Era so it is clear that when the Mahabharata was being written 23 The Scientific Dating of The Mahabharata War there was no custom of counting the years in a particular fashion from a particular date. Much after the great publicity of the Mahabharata some chronologist got an idea of counting the years. Hence he must have used the name of the famous king Yudhisthira to his method and started Yudhisthira Era at years B. The onset of Kaliyuga is also assumed from the same date. But there is no evidence in the Mahabharata itself to support this view.
Thus it makes clear that the evening of Dwapara was not yet ended and the Kali Yuga had not started when the great war took place. Thus the beginning of Kali Yuga is not told.
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It was still the Dwapara Yuga, but they were foreseeing the coming of Kaliyuga. It is important to note here that even today many people talk and write about the calamities coming with the end of Kaliyuga and say that the end of Kaliyuga is very near.