The technology was hindered by low broadband penetration and by the relatively high cost of installing wiring capable of transporting IPTV content reliably in the customer's home. In December , the FCC began looking into using set-top boxes to make TVs with cable or similar services into network video players.


A Nielsen survey found 99 percent of video viewing was done on TV. The number of global IPTV subscribers was expected to grow from 28 million in to 83 million in Europe and Asia are the leading territories in terms of the over-all number of subscribers.

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But in terms of service revenues, Europe and North America generate a larger share of global revenue, due to very low average revenue per user ARPU in China and India, the fastest growing and ultimately, the biggest markets is Asia. This service is available in several countries in which they operate, such as Dominican Republic , El Salvador , Guatemala , Honduras , Nicaragua.

This service is available in whole country. This service is available in major cities of the country. In December , Astro began trials with customers in high-rise condominium buildings around the Mont Kiara area. As of , IPTV service is launched as a large-scale commercial service and widely available across the country under the trademark "Tivibu EV". Examples of types of commercial users include airports, schools, offices, hotels, and sports stadiums, to name just a few.

Depending on the network architecture of the service provider, there are two main types of video server architecture that can be considered for IPTV deployment: The centralised architecture model is a relatively simple and easy to manage solution.

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Because all media content is stored in centralised servers, it does not require a comprehensive content distribution system. Centralised architecture is generally good for a network that provides relatively small VOD service deployment, has adequate core and edge bandwidth and has an efficient content delivery network CDN. Distributed architecture is just as scalable as the centralised model, however it has bandwidth usage advantages and inherent system management features that are essential for managing a larger server network.

Operators who plan to deploy a relatively large system should therefore consider implementing a distributed architecture model right from the start. Distributed architecture requires intelligent and sophisticated content distribution technologies to augment effective delivery of multimedia contents over service provider's network. In many cases, the residential gateway that provides connectivity with the Internet access network is not located close to the IPTV set-top box. This scenario becomes very common as service providers start to offer service packages with multiple set-top boxes per subscriber.

Networking technologies that take advantage of existing home wiring such as power lines, [35] [36] phone lines or coaxial cables [37] [38] or of wireless hardware have become common solutions for this problem, although fragmentation in the wired home networking market has limited somewhat the growth in this market.

Carriers will be able to offer both voice and IPTV services over the same core infrastructure and the implementation of services combining conventional TV services with telephony features e. Playback requires a broadband device connected to either a fixed or wireless IP network in the form of either a standalone personal computer or limited embedded OS device such as a smartphone , touch screen tablet , game console , connected TV or set-top box.

Video compression is provided by either a H. IP multicasting allows for live data to be sent to multiple receivers using a single multicast group address.

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A telecommunications company IPTV service is usually delivered over an investment-heavy walled garden network. Local IPTV, as used by businesses for audio visual AV distribution on their company networks is typically based on a mixture of:. Although IPTV and conventional satellite TV distribution have been seen as complementary technologies, they are likely to be increasingly used together in hybrid IPTV networks that deliver the highest levels of performance and reliability.

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  4. The copper twisted pair cabling that forms the last mile of the telephone and broadband network in many countries is not able to provide a sizeable proportion of the population with an IPTV service that matches even existing terrestrial or satellite digital TV distribution.

    Satellite distribution can be included in an IPTV network architecture in several ways. The simplest to implement is an IPTV- direct to home DTH architecture, in which hybrid DVB-broadband set-top boxes in subscriber homes integrate satellite and IP reception to give near-infinite bandwidth with return channel capabilities. In such a system, many live TV channels may be multicast via satellite IP-encapsulated or as conventional DVB digital TV with stored video-on-demand transmission via the broadband connection. For example, you would use broadband to receive some content and satellite to receive other, such as live channels".

    It is an increasing trend in both the consumer and pay TV [operator] markets. Hybrid IPTV has grown in popularity in recent years [ when? Since the emergence of online video aggregation sites, like YouTube and Vimeo in the mids, traditional pay TV operators have come under increasing pressure to provide their subscribers with a means of viewing Internet -based video [both professional and user-generated] on their televisions.

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    At the same time, specialist IP -based operators [often telecommunications providers] have looked for ways to offer analogue and digital terrestrial services to their operations, without adding either additional cost or complexity to their transmission operations. Bandwidth is a valuable asset for operators, so many have looked for alternative ways to deliver these new services without investing in additional network infrastructures. A hybrid set-top allows content from a range of sources, including terrestrial broadcast, satellite, and cable, to be brought together with video delivered over the Internet via an Ethernet connection on the device.

    This enables television viewers to access a greater variety of content on their TV sets, without the need for a separate box for each service. From a pay-TV operator's perspective, a hybrid IPTV set-top box gives them greater long-term flexibility by enabling them to deploy new services and applications as and when consumers require, most often without the need to upgrade equipment or for a technician to visit and reconfigure or swap out the device.

    This reduces the cost of launching new services, increases speed to market and limits disruption for consumers. The first commercially available hybrid IPTV set-top box was developed by Advanced Digital Broadcast , a developer of digital television hardware and software, in The platform was developed for Spanish pay TV operator Telefonica , [54] and used as part of its Movistar TV service, launched to subscribers at the end of This can provide a huge selection of channels to subscribers without overburdening Internet trunking to the POP, and enables an IPTV service to be offered to small or remote operators outside the reach of terrestrial high speed broadband connection.

    While the future development of IPTV probably lies with a number of coexisting architectures and implementations, it is clear [ according to whom? The Internet protocol-based platform offers significant advantages, including the ability to integrate television with other IP-based services like high speed Internet access and VoIP.

    A switched IP network also allows for the delivery of significantly more content and functionality. In a typical TV or satellite network, using broadcast video technology, all the content constantly flows downstream to each customer, and the customer switches the content at the set-top box. The customer can select from as many choices as the telecomms, cable or satellite company can stuff into the "pipe" flowing into the home. A switched IP network works differently. Content remains in the network, and only the content the customer selects is sent into the customer's home. That frees up bandwidth, and the customer's choice is less restricted by the size of the "pipe" into the home.

    This also implies that the customer's privacy could be compromised to a greater extent than is possible with traditional TV or satellite networks. It may also provide a means to hack into, or at least disrupt see Denial of service the private network. However, because video streams require a high bit rate for much longer periods of time, the expenditures to support high amounts of video traffic will be much greater.

    This phenomenon is called persistency. As video traffic continues to grow, this means that significantly more CMTS downstream channels will be required to carry this video content. An IP-based platform also allows significant opportunities to make the TV viewing experience more interactive and personalised. The supplier may, for example, include an interactive programme guide that allows viewers to search for content by title or actor's name, or a picture-in-picture functionality that allows them to "channel surf" without leaving the programme they're watching.

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    Viewers may be able to look up a player's stats while watching a sports game, or control the camera angle. They also may be able to access photos or music from their PC on their television, use a wireless phone to schedule a recording of their favourite show, or even adjust parental controls so their child can watch a documentary for a school report, while they're away from home. In order that there can take place an interaction between the receiver and the transmitter, a feedback channel is needed.

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    Due to this, terrestrial, satellite, and cable networks for television do not allow interactivity. However, interactivity with those networks can be possible by combining TV networks with data networks such as the Internet or a mobile communication network. IPTV technology is bringing video on demand VoD to television, [59] which permits a customer to browse an online programme or film catalogue, to watch trailers and to then select a selected recording. The playout of the selected item starts nearly instantaneously on the customer's TV or PC.

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